What are access specifiers in C++?

What are access specifiers in C++?

In this chapter of C++ interview questions, we will learn about:

  • what are access specifiers in c++
  • types of access specifiers in c++
  • examples of access specifiers in c++

Use of access specifiers in C++

Data Hiding is an important aspect of Object-Oriented Programming.


In C++ access specifiers are used to facilitate this feature. Access specifiers are used to provide certain level of permission to access data in class members.


Types of Access Specifiers

i) Private: Private members of a class are accessible only from within other members of the same class or from 'friends'.


ii) Protected: It is some similarity with a private access specifier. The difference it can be accessed from a derived class or friend class/ child class.


iii) Public: Public members are accessible from anywhere, it is accessed through access operator(.) with the object of the class.

Examples of access specifiers in c++(Public & Private)

class TIH {
  public:  // Public access specifier
    int a;  
  private:  // Private access specifier
    int b; 

int main() {
  TIH obj; //Object created
  obj.a = 22;  // Allowed (public) accessed through (.) opeartor
  obj.b = 43;  // Not allowed (private)
  return 0;


error obj.b=43 // Not allowed

Examples of access specifiers in c++ (Protected)

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
class A {
      int x;
class B:A { // B is the derived class.
      void setting( int x1 );
      int getting( void );
// Member functions of child class
int B::getting(void) {
   return x ;
void B::setting( int x1) {
   x = x1;

int main() {
   B b1;
   cout << "Value is : "<< b1.getting() << endl;
   return 0;


Value is : 10

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Subhajit Guha Thakurta
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