What is Von Neumann bottleneck

What is Von Neumann bottleneck

CPUs processing speed is much faster in comparsion to the main memory (RAM) as a result the CPU needs to wait longer to obtain data-word from the memory. This is because CPU uses registers embedded within it and registers are very fast. Main memory is not able to match up the speed of register thus resulting in speed disparity.


This CPU and memory speed disparity is known as Von Neumann bottleneck.


Please check our video tutorial on what is von neumann bottleneck? & How to resolve it?


How can this CPU-memory disparity be resolved?

This problem of Von Neumann bottleneck can be solved in two ways:

  1. Use of cache memory between CPU and main memory
  2. Using RISC computers

This performance problem can be reduced by introducing a cache memory (special type of fast memory) in between the CPU and the main memory.

This is because the speed of the cache memory is almost same as that of the CPU. So there is no waiting time for CPU and data-word to come to it for processing.


Another way of solving the problem is by using special type of computer known as Reduced Instruction Set Computers (RISC).

The main intention of the RISC is to reduce the total number of memory references made by the CPU; instead it uses large number of registers for the same purpose.


Learn in depth about other related concepts in Computer organization and architecture tutorial


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Rohanjit Kumar
Technology geek, loves to write and share knowledge with the world. Having 9+ years of IT experience. B.Tech in Computer Science & Engineering
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